A service definition (.sd) encapsulates a service into a single transferable file, optionally including source GIS data. The Upload Service Definition tool uploads a service definition to the server and publishes it. It can be invoked from the arcpy site package included with ArcGIS for Desktop.
The following Python example loops through a given folder, finds the service definitions contained therein (excluding subfolders), and publishes them to ArcGIS Server. All that's required is a data location, the path to an ArcGIS Server connection file, and the name of the destination folder on ArcGIS Server. The service definitions could be of any service type.
# Publishes all service definitions in an operating system directory # (excluding subfolders) import arcpy, os # Define path to SDs wrkspc = "C:/data" sdDir = wrkspc + "/SDs" # Provide path to connection file # To create this file, right-click a folder in the Catalog window and # click New > ArcGIS Server Connection con = wrkspc + "/connections/arcgis on myserver_6080 (publisher).ags" # Destination folder name on ArcGIS Server serverFolder = "TestPublish" # Loop through all items in folder sdList = os.listdir(sdDir) for sd in sdList: # Construct path to item extension = os.path.splitext(sd) #Get file extension sdPath = os.path.join(sdDir, sd) # Check if item is an SD file and, if so, try to publish if os.path.isfile(sdPath) and extension == ".sd": try: arcpy.UploadServiceDefinition_server(sdPath, con, "", "", "EXISTING", serverFolder) print "Published " + sd + " with no errors reported." except: print "Could not complete publishing operation for " + sd + "." print arcpy.GetMessages()